to resist tinkering, below are my changes and additions, a printer friendly
copy of which can be found here..
Scale used is 1 cable = 2½ ".
to two TBD or TB, or one scout cruiser or TGB and one TBD/TB may be mounted
on one base.
factors for my own ships at Annex A.
Ignore “obsolete” classification.
Ships marked with a “*” for speed pay a NIP for the second move
as “obsolete” did.
ship type: TGB = Torpedo Gunboat.
Class TBs are those designed for coast defence or for carriage on larger
that historically had a very low freeboard, or were very wet or excessive
rollers, or had much of their armament unworkable in a seaway, are known as
“bad sea boats.”
(such as the early ironclad frigates,) that carried their armament on the
broadside with only a few chase guns capable of fore and aft fire are known
as “broadside ships.”
few ships that, because of their great size for their class, can take more
damage than would be normal given their armour are known as having
“special protection”. Examples of such vessels would be the British
“Powerful” class protected cruisers and Italian “Lepanto” class
battleships. They are marked with a “+” for the defence factor at Annex
A. Ships with weak or badly distributed armour are known as having
“inferior protection”. They are marked with a “-“ for the defence
practically all ships were fitted with ram bows, the use of ramming tactics
as a major factor in battle was a topic of much conjecture in this period.
The general feeling was that after the 1860s improvements in gunnery had
made ramming unlikely except as a result of accidental collision. However,
even as late as the 1890s, some ships were designed to use the ram a main
weapon, examples include the British “Polythemus”, “Rupert”,
“Conqueror”, and “Arrogant”; the British/Turkish “Belleisle”;
and the American “Katahdin.” These
vessels are known as “Rams” and were generally more manoeuvrable at
close quarters than their contemporaries and were better stressed for
ramming. These advantages are reflected in the ramming rules.
sea boats, broadside ships and those with inferior protection cost the same
points value as other ships despite their disadvantages: consider them bad
bargains. There is no additional cost for Rams as they are very unlikely to
make use of their additional attributes. Ships with special protection cost
more: that is the price that you pay for the prestige of such large vessels.
Sequence of Play
4. Damage Control.
once for each of the speller’s ships that is flooding:
a score of 6 the watertight bulkheads hold and the flooding is stopped.
Remove the marker.
a score of two to five the flooding continues.
a score of 1 the flooding continues and an additional damaged marker is
added. This may cause crippling or sinking in the same way as gunfire
marked on Annex A with a speed of “2+” receive an extra free move
straight ahead (i.e. TBD, 1st class TB and scout cruisers as well
as some, but not all, 1st and 2nd class cruisers.)
a squadron contains any crippled ships, at least one NIP must be allocated
to each crippled ship in the squadron before two NIPs can be allocated to
any other ship or group in the squadron.
squadron that makes a turn together from line astern into line abreast as a
group move may not make another turn as a group move for the remainder of
that spell and for the whole of it’s next spell. Its ships may make
individual turns using individual NIPS during this period. (Note: this
restriction makes the “battle turn away” that was only mastered by the
well drilled German High Seas Fleet of WWI much more difficult, as it was in
reality, and thus encourages the use of line ahead and the turn in
ships can engage targets to full effect on each beam simultaneously but
cannot engage targets forward and aft.
ships whose main armament is in turrets, (such as the “Captain”, “
” and “Wivern”,) may only
engage on one broadside to full effect or may engage to both broadsides
simultaneously at reduced effect.
was common for some rams and coastal defence vessels to carry all the main
armament forward. Such vessels do not count reduced fire when firing through
the normal forward arc at long and extreme range, but they have no fire
through their normal stern arc at these ranges.
or coast defence ships that have no secondary armament, (such as the
“Devastation”, “Cyclops”, “Puritan” etc.,) may only engage on
one broadside to full effect or may engage to both broadsides simultaneously
at reduced effect.
and 1st Class Cruisers other than those covered above, use the
following Attack Factors for their normal range opposite broadside depending
on the number of medium calibre (5” or larger,) secondary guns that they
mount on the broadside. They do not count “reduced effect” for these
~ 4 or less secondaries on broadside: AF=1
~ 5 or more secondaries on broadside: AF=2
addition to normal gunfire, un-crippled ships with a torpedo factor of
“1” may make one torpedo attack per game. Un-crippled ships with a
torpedo factor of “2” may make one attack at an attack factor of two, or
two separate torpedo attacks each with an attack factor of one, per game.
attacks made during the enemy’s spell may only be made at an attack factor
and TBs may make a full effect torpedo attack through their broadside or bow
vessels may make a full effect torpedo attack through their broadside arcs
or a reduced effect attack through their bow or stern arcs.
These attack limits are based on the fact that the ship will be manoeuvring
inside its base area during the attack to bring beam and bow/stern tubes to
bear and assumes that most reloading, where reloads were available, would
take place out of combat. A
possible exception to this would be TGBs and larger ships, which certainly
carried reloads, but the intent of the rule is to prevent incessant “pot
shotting” with torpedoes which were saved for decisive use. The
restriction on making a full strength attack in the enemy’s move reflects
the confused nature of a torpedo attack “melee”.)
and gunfire attacks are announced at the same time. Torpedo attacks are
resolved before gunfire but any effects from the torpedoes are not counted
for that turn’s gunfire, (the torpedoes take time to run in the water so
their effect is not instantaneous like gunfire.)
an appropriate one or two factor marker on the ship’s base when torpedoes
Small Calibre Guns
Cruiser, TGB, TBD and TB gunfire is only effective against ships with a
defence factor of 1or 0.
if firing guns at a ship, which is being shot at by three or more ships.
(See also “Windy Corners and Stopped ships for exceptions.)
if shooting at TBD/TB at extreme range.
if shooting at TBD/TB at night without searchlight, or at a TBD/TB at dusk
if shooting while hindered by sunset or sunrise, or by heavy seas.
torpedoes at normal range.
torpedoes vs the bow or stern base edge of the target.
torpedoes vs target that moved 3 or 4 last spell.
vs target that was stopped last spell and is not crippled now.
if the target of a torpedo attack, or an adjacent ship, is the target of
another torpedo attack.
“TBD” in “Other”, and “TBD, TB or Submarine” in “Ship” to
new sentence: “Ships crippled by torpedo attack start flooding.”
ships in line ahead fall out of line one base width away from the direction
of fire. The front base edge
remains on the original heading. If
the ships were multiply based place the crippled ship on a new base.
target ship with special protection takes three damage hits before becoming
Second Class TB is crippled if it is already damaged. Damaged if not.
target ship with inferior protection counts a draw result as crippled if
already damaged twice or if the target of a torpedo attack. Damaged if not.
ship whose move intersects another ship tests for involuntary ramming if
both ships are friendly, or if the mover does not wish to ram; or tests for
voluntary ramming if the mover wishes to ram.
there is a risk of friendly collision, make all compulsory moves first, then
make any optional moves in the following order: lowest squadron NIP dice, if
of same squadron slowest maximum speed (not necessarily the number of NIPs
allocated,) if of same speed largest ship.
testing for rams/collisions the moving ship must state how many NIPs it
intends to move.
a line abreast or line ahead contacts one ship test for ramming in order
from the closest ship at the beginning of the move first.
If that ship makes an effective ram ignore all other moving ships who
pass through the target. If the
closest ship does not make an effective ram, test for the next ship, and so
on. If the target rams one of
the moving ships other moving ships are ignored if they are in line abreast.
If the movers are in line astern the other ships still have a chance
to ram the target, which may now count as stationary.
one D6 for the moving ship, add its speed in bases, according to it’s
declared NIP expenditure, and deduct the speed of the target for last spell,
or this spell if it has since been stopped. If either of the ships involved
is a “ram” it may add, or deduct, one to the dice score to reflect its
superior manoeuvrability. If both ships are rams the rammer states whether
he is adding or subtracting before the target decides.
the rammer contacts a broadside edge a score of 5 or 6 indicates an
effective ram if voluntary, 6 if involuntary.
the rammer contacts a bow or stern edge a score of 6 indicates an effective
ram if voluntary, 7 if involuntary.
score of 1 or less indicates that the target has struck an effective ram on
there is no effective ram move the mover through the target and continue its
move in accordance with declared NIP expenditure.
In a bow or stern ram situation where the mover only has one move
left place it broadside to broadside with the target.
a ram is effective compare the size of rammer and target.
Reduce this size by one level (“smaller” is the minimum) if the
rammer’s speed is only one base. Increase the size by one if the rammer is
= Damaged. Ship stops if ram is through broadside.
If ram is through bow or stern and damage occurs to the rammer, place
the rammer broadside to broadside with the target and move no further that
turn, but neither ship is stopped. Ship starts flooding.
= Crippled. Rammer will stop
without passing through target if it suffers this result on a broadside ram,
or will stop broadside to broadside if on a bow or stern ram. Ship starts
= Ship continues its move.
stern rams reduce the effect of the ram on the rammer and target by one
level, i.e. sunk becomes crippled, and so on.
damage result cripples an already twice-damaged ship but has no additional
effect on an already crippled ship. In both situations the ship will start
PVs = total of:
factor. If the defence factor is 3 add an additional 1 point. If the
defence factor is 4 add an additional 3 points. If the defence factor is
0 halve the sum of all the other factors.
if Extreme Range Attack
factor is “x”
if speed is “*”
if ship has special protection.
Complications (Add To Taste)
ships of the period carried their main armament in open barbettes to
facilitate loading and training and to reduce top weight. Such barbettes
were vulnerable to plunging shellfire at extreme range and to small calibre
fire at close range.
firing at such ships add +1 to the attack value at extreme range.
firing at such ships at close range the firer may fire twice, using his
close range factor, (if it is not being used for anti-TBD/TB fire,) in
addition to the normal range factor.
the late 1870s to the early part of World War One battleships and cruisers
of most nations except the
were equipped with
anti-torpedo nets. These nets were a very effective defence against earlier
torpedoes but were ineffective against later weapons. They could be raised
and lowered easily but restricted a moving vessel to a speed of about six
knots when deployed. However, even when nets were lowered the bow and stern
portions of the ship were usually left exposed so protection was not
complete. Also there was always a danger that battle damage would cut loose
nets, even if they were not deployed, which could then foul rudders or
propellers. This almost happened to Derfflinger at
simulate these factors:
or lowering nets takes 1 NIP. This may be done as a group move.
with nets lowered may only move one base. Any turn requires an
–1 from all torpedo attacks against ships with nets lowered.
any ship equipped with nets receives a “damaged” result dice again.
On a score of 5 or 6 if the nets are lowered, or of 6 if they are
raised, the nets foul the ship. It falls out of line and stops as if
crippled. In the damage control segment throw to cut away the fouling on
a score of 5 or 6. Fouling is never permanent.
are affected as follows in Rough Weather:
ships lose their “free” second move.
sea boats, 2nd and 3rd class cruisers, scout
cruisers, TGB, TBD, and 1st class TBs lose one base from
their maximum movement and deduct –1 from all gun and torpedo fire.
class TBs return to port or their mother ship.
attempting to stop flooding dice again on a 6. A score of 1,2 or 3
indicates that the heavy seas rupture the repair. The flooding and
repair attempts continue next spell.
and Stern Arcs
the fore and aft layout of main turrets was settled upon in the 1890s, naval
designers of practically all nations made attempts to maximise fore and aft
fire. This was intended to allow the same firepower to be applied when
approaching the enemy bows-on as could be applied from the broadside. This
trend include the French preference, (copied on the British “Warspite”)
of deploying their main guns in a lozenge to give the same theoretical
firepower forward, aft and on each broadside. Similarly the citadel turret
ships, such as the Italian “Duilio”, the British “Inflexible” and
the Chinese “Chen Yuen”, had their main turrets en echelon amidships
which limited broadside arcs for their guns but which again could,
theoretically, fire their full armament fore and aft.
key word in all of this is “theoretical”. When firing the wing turrets
straight ahead they could often do more hurt to their own ship by blast
damage than they did to the enemy. Thus
the bridge of the “Ting Yuen” was blown away by the blast of its own
guns at the
of the Yalu and the
unfortunate Admiral Ting knocked out for two hours. However such ships were
designed to fight end on, and to let them do so the following rules apply:
long and extreme range a ship which has its main armament in lozenge or
en echelon may fire at targets which have any part of their base
inside the two lines extending the firer’s own base sides
without counting the “-1” for reduced effect. The firer may choose
to take the “-1”.
the firer did not take the “-1” and throws a “1” on the dice
blast damage badly affects the ship and it may not fire during the next
two fire phases.
relatively narrow arc allowed for such fire reflects the fact that
theoretically no wing turret had an arc of over 180 degrees. The restriction
to firing at long and extreme range only reflects the secondary batteries
being a more important component of the ship’s firepower at normal range.
their drive to build the fastest and most powerful individual ships in the
world the Italians built several classes of battleships with monster 17”
and 17.7” guns which had a great effect but a very slow rate of fire. To
match these ships the British responded with HMS Inflexible mounting monster
muzzleloaders and the monster breach loaders on HMS Benbow and the Victorias.
These vessels have two firepower factors, one reflecting their main and
secondary armaments firing and one reflecting only their secondary weapons
firing without the main guns. Use the former factor during the ship’s own
spell and the latter during the enemy’s spell. (There is no choice in
this, even if the ship does not fire in its own spell it may not fire its
main factor in the enemy phase. This makes any record keeping unnecessary
but also reflects the problem of training such monster guns that were
intended for slow shooting at long range in open arcs rather than snap
shooting at crossing targets.) Take the average of both fire factors when
determining the ship’s points value.
Corners and Stopped Ships
of the riskiest manoeuvres in the era of big-gun naval warfare was to turn
in succession under the guns of the enemy. This enabled the enemy fleet to
concentrate its firepower on a fixed point, the knuckle of the turn, and
each ship passing through it would come under concentrated fire.
For the enemy splash was still a bit of a problem but half of the
difficulty of obtaining a range solution, the movement of the target, was
removed so the shooting should be more accurate.
got away with such a
and the 5th Battle
Squadron was lucky to survive such a turn at
model this situation if a squadron is turning in succession through more
than 45 degrees, the base location immediately after the point of turn is
known as “Windy Corner.” If a ship fires at Windy Corner in a spell, in
the next spell it does not count against the limit for splash confusion if
it fires at a ship in the same Windy Corner base location. Note that it will
not necessarily be firing at the same target ship because, if it is the
enemy’s movement spell, one or more ships could have moved through Windy
Corner ceases to exist when all the ships in the squadron have moved through
the base location.
ship that is crippled on Windy Corner still counts as being on it as she
hauls out of line.
squadron that is making a series of sharp turns in quick succession may
create several Windy Corners. However the advantage of firing at a Windy
Corner cannot be transferred to another Windy Corner, no matter how close.
It is the fixed spot in the ocean that the ships are turning on that is the
target, not the ships themselves.
instance, let us assume that Red has a squadron of four battleships: A, B, C
and D in line ahead. In spell one they move one base and then turn in
succession 90 degrees. Only A completes the turn. A’s position is now
Windy Corner. Blue has eight ships that are firing on Red’s squadron, two
on each target.
spell two Red does not move so A is still on Windy Corner. Now the two of
Blue’s ships that fired on A last turn do not count against the splash
limit so in spell two four ships can concentrate their fire on her without
deducting for the splash problem.
spell three Red moves again, two bases straight ahead with the turn
continuing. A moves off Windy Corner, (much relieved.) B moves through Windy
Corner, (she suffers no disadvantage for this I know, a rules fudge,) and
the unfortunate C ends up on Windy Corner. Now the four Blue ships that
fired at A last spell can fire at C (in A’s old position,) without
counting against the splash limit so a total of six Blues can concentrate
with no deduction.
spell four all eight Blues can concentrate on C.
spell five the Reds move two bases again. If C was lucky in spell four, she
moves off Windy Corner, D moves through and beyond Windy Corner at no
disadvantage and the Red Admiral compliments himself on a bold manoeuvre in
the face of the enemy as Windy Corner disappears. If
C was unlucky in spell four and was crippled she hauls out of line but still
counts as being on Windy Corner. Blue can continue firing at her with no
deduction. If D has enough NIPS she can move through Windy Corner but if she
does not have enough NIPS then she ends up in the hot spot previously
occupied by A and C. Blue can choose whether to fire on C, or D, or both
with no deduction
firing at a ship that is stopped, either voluntarily or because it is
crippled, the same procedure for deducting for splash confusion applies.
Class Torpedo Boats
the 1880s and early 1890s it was common for battleships, such as the British
“Inflexible”, Italian “Duilio” and Chinese “Ting Yuen” to carry
their own torpedo boats. Even some cruisers such as the British
“Leander” carried TBs and it was also anticipated that troopships or
armed merchant cruisers would be used to transport TBs. This philosophy was
taken to its logical, (but ultimately ineffectual,) conclusion in the
British “Vulcan” and French “Foudre” which were purpose built
torpedo boat carriers, designed to take a whole squadron of the short ranged
TBs to sea with the fleet, rather like the aircraft carriers of later years.
This strange arm of warship evolution eventually became extinct as 1st
Class TBs and TBDs became more seaworthy and could accompany the fleet under
their own steam.
most cases the 2nd Class TBs would have been launched prior to an
engagement starting, either to protect their own fleet at anchor or to
attack the enemy fleet. In this case no special rules are required, simply
pay the cost of the TB and move them, either as part of their mother
ship’s squadron or as a squadron in their own right. To launch TBs in a
tactical situation TBs must be paid for, the mother ship must be stopped and
uncrippled. To launch each TB costs one NIP. Battleships and cruisers may
only launch one TB each spell. TB carriers and merchant auxiliaries may
launch a maximum of two each spell. The launching ship may not fire that
spell. Place the TB on a separate base abeam of the mother ship. It may move
in its next spell. If the mother ship is damaged, crippled or sunk in the
same spell as it launches a TB the TB suffers the same result.
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